... – basically the efficient organization of production – is possibly the great technological achievement of our age. And has yet to fully diffuse." - link.
... (link) pelo menos nas areas da educacao e emprego, e' uma lufada de ar fresco, de competencia e esclarecimento, quanto a mim 'a altura dos grandes desafios que o pais tem pela frente.
PS - Entrevista de Pedro Passos Coelho ao FT - link. Excerto: "The “serious difference” between his party and the Socialists of José Sócrates, the outgoing prime minister, he says, is that the PSD “believes in the changes we have to make”. "
Research continues to find large differences in student achievement gains across teachers’ classrooms. The variability in teacher effectiveness raises the stakes on identifying effective teachers and teaching practices. This paper combines data from classroom observations of teaching practices and measures of teachers’ ability to improve student achievement as one contribution to these questions. We find that observation measures of teaching effectiveness are substantively related to student achievement growth and that some observed teaching practices predict achievement more than other practices. Our results provide information for both individual teacher development efforts, and the design of teacher evaluation systems.
This paper reviews the empirical economic literature on the relative importance of non cognitive skills for school and labour market outcomes, with a focus on Europe. There is evidence that high cognitive test scores are likely to result not only from high cognitive skills but also from high motivation and adequate personality traits. This suggests that part of the contribution of cognitive skills to economic growth could be due to personality traits. Across large parts of the literature, there is consensus that non cognitive skills have important effects both on school attainment and on labour market outcomes. These effects might be as important as the effects of cognitive skills.
Uma nova ideia que ainda nao chegou a Portugal - explorar o potencial informativo de bases de dados de grandes dimensoes, que permitem identificar padroes de grande relevancia para as politicas publicas.
Um bom exemplo nesta cronica no Guardian, sobre os efeitos das demoras nos servicos de urgencia no Canada.
PS - Outro exemplo - Google Trends - aqui.
"School-Based Early Childhood Education and Age-28 Well-Being: Effects by Timing, Dosage, and Subgroups", por por Arthur J. Reynolds, Judy A. Temple, Suh-Ruu Ou, Irma A. Artea e Barry A. B. White - link.
Advances in understanding the effects of early education have benefited public policy and developmental science. Although preschool has demonstrated positive effects on life-course outcomes, limitations in knowledge on program scale, subgroup differences, and dosage levels have hindered progress.
We report the effects of the Child-Parent Center Education Program on indicators of well-being up to 25 years later for more than 1400 participants. This established, publicly funded intervention begins in preschool and provides up to 6 years of service in inner-city Chicago schools.
Relative to the comparison group receiving the usual services, program participation was independently linked to higher educational attainment, income, socioeconomic status (SES), and health insurance coverage, as well as lower rates of justice-system involvement and substance abuse.
... "Economia das Pessoas"!
Testes intermedios de Portugues e Matematica, no 2o ano de escolaridade - link. A alargar a outras disciplinas com urgencia?
"Investigating Academic Impact" - Conferencia na LSE.
Reducao do crime nos EUA - que explicacoes? - link.
"The annuity puzzle", por Richard Thaler - link.
"Time to make professors teach"? - link: reduzir tempo para investigacao para diminuir propinas nas universidades dos EUA?
1. "Portugal Decisively Ends Leftist Rule" - no WSJ. Suspiro de alívio - já é possível evitar a bancarrota.
Além disso, cerca de 85% dos eleitores escolhem partidos da troika, mostrando claramente o caminho que o povo quer seguir. E solução maioritária PSD+CDS permite conciliar perspectiva de longo-prazo que tanto tem faltado ao país com inevitáveis preocupações eleitorais: a dois anos difíceis de ajustamentos provavelmente seguir-se-ão dois anos já de recuperação e crescimento.
Saída de cena de Sócrates também importante vitória da noite eleitoral, permitindo liderança mais responsável no Partido Socialista: qualquer que seja, não poderá ser mais polarizadora e destruidora do debate interno que a do agora ex-primeiro-ministro.
Em resumo, momento bonito de Portugal - até pela feliz decisão de se cantar o hino nacional após o primeiro discurso do novo primeiro-ministro.
2. "Ondas de insatisfação" nas admissões para o ensino superior - link. Estudo indica que candidatos não colocados nas primeiras escolhas "empurram" outros candidatos para as suas segundas ou terceiras preferências - mas que alternativa há?
3. Peter Diamond sobre a importância da economia do trabalho na definição da política monetária - link.
Abstract: The paper examines severance pay programs around the world by providing the first ever overview of existing programs, examining their historic development, assessing their economic rationale and describing current reform attempts. While a significant part of the paper is devoted to a comprehensive 183 cross country review of existing severance arrangements and their characteristics, the paper goes beyond a mere description. It develops and empirically tests three hypotheses about the economic rationale of the program, namely severance pay being: (i) a primitive income protection program, (ii) an efficiency enhancing human resource instrument, and (iii) a job protection instrument. The paper also reviews the recent reforms of Austria, Chile, Italy and Korea.
IZA discussion paper 5723, por Oriana Bandiera, Iwan Barankay, e Imran Rasul
Abstract: We discuss how the use of field experiments sheds light on long standing research questions relating to firm behavior. We present insights from two classes of experiments: within and across firms, and draw common lessons from both sets. Field experiments within firms generally aim to shed light on the nature of agency problems. Along these lines, we discuss how field experiments have provided new insights on shirking behavior, and the provision of monetary and non-monetary incentives. Field experiments across firms generally aim to uncover firms' binding constraints by exogenously varying the availability of key inputs such as labor, physical capital, and managerial capital. We conclude by discussing some of the practical issues researchers face when designing experiments and by highlighting areas for further research.
Por Jim Silver, Bloomberg, 2 de Junho
Ferreira, like many Portuguese employers, found that what he thought was a clear instance for firing didn’t persuade labor courts. Portugal’s constitution says employees may be dismissed for “just cause.” Actually doing so is hard enough that the European Union and International Monetary Fund made changes in worker-dismissal rules a condition in the nation’s 78 billion-euro ($112 billion) rescue last month.
As with Greece, investors are skeptical Portugal will swallow its bailout medicine, which includes slashing spending, raising revenue and imposing structural changes long prescribed
by economists and executives such as Ferreira. The yield on the country’s 10-year bond rose this week to 9.77 percent, more than three times Germany’s rate, as Portuguese voters prepare to go to the polls on June 5 to elect a new government.
In exchange for aid, Portugal agreed to reduce workers’ severance payments, bringing them in line with the EU average. It also vowed to keep private-sector wages from growing faster than productivity; facilitate entry into the telecommunications market, and enhance phone and energy regulators’ powers; phase out rent control; and merge some of its 308 municipalities.
‘No Political Will’
“The measures seem to be everything that businessmen have been talking about for a long time,” Ferreira said in an interview. In the past, “there was no political will. Now they
can say the measures have to be implemented because they were demanded by the troika,” he said, referring to negotiators from the EU, the European Central Bank and the IMF.
Socialist Prime Minister Jose Socrates sought the aid on April 5 after parliament rejected his proposal for extra deficit cuts amid a surge in borrowing costs, a move that prompted his
resignation and early elections. Portugal is the third bailout victim of Europe’s debt crisis after Greece and Ireland. The extra yield investors demand to hold 10-year Portuguese bonds over German bunds of similar maturity has risen more than 200 basis points to 670 since the Social Democrats and People’s Party rejected Socrates’s austerity plan. The two parties now say they’ll join the premier’s Socialists in respecting the restrictions of the bailout package.
The cost of insuring against a Portuguese default reached a record today as investors increased bets the country won’t be able to make good on its borrowing. Credit default swaps on the nation’s debt rose 11 basis points to 700. “Everybody knew that sooner or later we would smash against a wall,” said Peter Villax, president of the Portuguese Association of Family-Owned Companies and vice president of biomedical firm Hovione FarmaCiencia SA. “What a pity Portugal can only have good government when it is forced upon us.”
Spending cuts and revenue increases, intended to trim the budget deficit to 3 percent of gross domestic product in 2013 from last year’s 9.1 percent, are contributing to the worst
economic slump in decades. Portugal’s economy already has among the weakest growth rates in the euro area, expanding less than 1 percent on average in the decade through 2010.
While the government forecasts that GDP will contract 2 percent both this year and next, the economic overhaul may slowly ease the pain. Loosening labor restrictions may add 1.1
percent to GDP over 10 years, and increasing competition for non-tradable goods such as phone services may lift economic output by 1.9 percent, the IMF estimated last year.
Portugal made the most progress toward liberalizing labor rules from 2003 to 2009 among 28 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development member countries, according to an
OECD study. Still, Portugal’s rules ranked as the eighth-most restrictive among 30 countries.
“In the past, there’s been enormous pressure to stop measures like these, to water them down,” said Pedro Magalhaes, a politics researcher at the University of Lisbon. “The narrower the next coalition is, the harder it will be to implement the measures” as the opposition often teams with special interests to block reforms, he said.
Opening up the rental market would help rehabilitate thousands of apartments that are poorly maintained because they generate so little income, the Association for Public Works and
Construction estimates. Housing requires about 74 billion euros of renovation work, which may generate revenue of 535 million euros a year, according to the Lisbon-based group.
Bailout terms also call for steps to speed the flow of court hearings. The number of civil cases pending rose by about 50 percent in the decade through 2009, according to the Justice
Ministry. “The courts are full of cases; nothing happens,” said Carlos Barbot, chief executive officer of paint producer Barbot-Industria de Tintas SA, adding that it’s taken his company more than a decade to collect on back payments through the courts. “Sometimes they make an agreement to pay, and then they pay or they don’t pay.”
The Bank of Portugal said May 19 that “strict” adherence to the rescue terms is “desirable and unavoidable,” warning that broad political and social support is needed to defeat “vested interests” opposed to change. Ferreira, the Douro Azul chairman, isn’t optimistic that
elections will produce a government that will live up to Portugal’s commitments. “We need decision-makers who work like managers,” he said. “To be honest, from what I see of the ones we have, it’s almost impossible.”